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Use Vyper to create secure smart contracts
In recent years, Vyper has gained popularity as a programming language to create smart contract. Solidity has been the clear leader in programming languages for creating and deploying smart contract software. What makes Vyper smart contract different from Solidity smart contracts? Vyper’s primary focus in smart contract development is on safeguards against vulnerabilities caused by features.
Solidity allows users access to many tools and features, which can increase security risks. You want to learn how Vyper can help you create smart contracts. This tutorial will show you how to write, compile and deploy smart contracts in Vyper programming language.
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The Vyper and Solidity Debate
Vyper’s smart contract tutorial will highlight the similarities between Vyper & Solidity. Vyper, a smartcontract programming language that is heavily inspired by Python, allows you to create EVM-compatible smart agreements. This programming language allows you to only use one type of data.
Anyone would think of Solidity before building secure smart contracts with Vyper. Solidity is the market leader in smart contract programming languages. Vyper’s features have been simplified to only the most important and productive. Vyper’s limited features were designed to solve many problems encountered by smart contracts developers in Solidity.
What Problems are Solved By Vyper?
Vyper’s guide to smart contracts would also contain a detailed description of the Python solutions. Research has shown that smart contracts can have unwanted vulnerabilities which, in turn, can lead to unpredictable behavior. This is supported by evidence. One common issue is how smart contracts distribute Ether supply to random addresses that have never received any Ether or provided any data. These smart contracts are also known as prodigal or untrue contracts. The suicidal smart contract is another type of risk. These contracts are terminated immediately in the event of an emergency, or improper draining of Ether.
Smart contracts such as Vyper can have the best chance to avoid greedy contracts. These can lock up Ether and not give instructions on how to transfer it. Posthumous contracts that are made with Solidity can cause problems. These contracts can be accessed on the Ethereum Blockchain even after termination. They can also receive transactions even though they can interact with contract code. Posthumous contracts could result in Ether being locked in the contract balance.
You should also note that Vyper can be used to create smart contracts. Programming language Vyper has different limits and overflow checks for arrays and arithmetic operations. Smart contracts can be used to calculate the exact upper limit of gas consumption. Vyper supports decimal fixed-point numbers as well as signed integers.
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Smart contract developers need to be familiar with Vyper’s basic principles. These are the foundation of Vyper’s capabilities for writing, compiling and deploying smart contracts. Vyper’s smart contract programming language is one of the most prominent features. It solves the problems associated with prodigal, posthumous and greedy smart contracts.
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Steps to Building Secure Smart Contracts in Vyper
Vyper smart contract building steps are worth your attention because they offer multiple security and functionality features. Follow the recommendations to create secure smart contracts using Vyper. Let’s take a look at each step involved in creating secure smart contract using Vyper.
Installation by Vyper
Installing Vyper and all the required libraries is the first step to developing secure smart contracts using Vyper. Vyper installation doesn’t require you to look far. Vyper can be installed with Python 3.6 and higher versions. You can download Python libraries and guides from the official Python website. You will also need the “pip”, package manager. This can be installed by following the instructions.
sudo aptget install Python3-pip
A script can be used to start the process of building secure smart contracts with Vyper.
You should make sure that the “pip package manger” global installation is enabled on the device in question. To check the package manager, you can only use the “pip” command. If you get a result that says “command not found”, then you will need to manually set the path that points towards the ‘pip” installation folder. For Mac users, the following line can be used with the “~/.bashrc file to achieve the same functionality.
You can check if it is working by using the “pip” command in your terminal. The following syntax will allow you to proceed with installing Vyper: Use the “pip command” in the terminal.
pip install vyper
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Prerequisites to Writing the Smart Contract
After you have installed the Vyper programming languages, you can begin the next step of building secure smart contracts. A smart contract is basically code. You can define everything it should do. Let’s take as an example the simple writing of a smart contract in Vyper to store and display a user name.
Ropsten Testnet is the best tool to test the smart contract. Ropsten Testnet is used to test the smart contract using fake or virtual ETH prior to deployment on Ethereum mainnet. It is essential to understand the basics of writing code before you start creating the smart contract code.
As a prerequisite to smart contract programming, you will need to install the Metamask wallet. Metamask could play a crucial role in facilitating interactions between Ethereum. The browser extension can be downloaded by clicking on the logo in your browser. This will open a new tab to complete the registration process. Login to Metamask extension and enter your registration details. From there, click on the dropdown menu. Choose Ropsten Test Network from the dropdown menu.
Vyper’s smart contract tutorial will also focus on the configuration of Ropsten Test Network, before you start writing code. A copy icon is located next to the address for the Ethereum wallet. It looks like a collection alphanumerical number. To get free Ethereum, copy the address and paste it. To get free ETH, copy the address and paste it in the text box of Ropsten Ethereum Faucet. The Metamask browser extension will allow you to access the account balance and add ETH free of charge.
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Writing Smart Contract Code in Vyper
With an understanding of the structure of Vyper program, it is possible to make writing and deploying smart contracts in Vyper easier. Important to remember that Vyper programs are primarily written in files with the extension “.vy”. What are the key components of a Vyper smart contracts structure? This is a summary of the key highlights of smart contract.
Version Pragma is information about the smart contract version. It is crucial for ensuring that the contract code passes the compilation process with the correct compiler version.
State Variables (or unique variables): These unique variables are used to store information about the state of a smartcontract and are usually associated with an external declaration that relates to smartcontract functions. They also have some initial values and the ability to be accessed through the’self object.
Events are specific processes or actions that are triggered by certain conditions in the smart contracts. These events can also be logged in EVM’s logging channel.
Structs: These are the key components of smart contracts that define the type and state variables.
Functions: Smart contracts function is a collection of codes that can be used to execute different types of actions. Functions are an integral part of smart contract writing in Vyper. They can be internal or externally valid. Functions can be used to return values or accept arguments.
Interface: The interface is an essential element of a smart contract structure as it specifies the functions that the smart contracts are able to perform.
Let’s take as an example a simple smart contract code to show how Vyper can be used to create secure smart contracts with the desired effectiveness. This simple code could be used to save a user’s name and help them retrieve it. You will need the “vyper_contract”, folder that contains a “contract.vy”, file. You will now need to add the following code into the “contract.vy” file.
# @version ^0.3.1 userName: public(String) @external def __init__ (name: String). self.userName = Name @view @external def getUserName() -> String: Return self.userName
Implementing smart contracts with Vyper programming language is made easier by the details in each line of code. Each line in the example code serves a different function within the overall smart contract. The pragma is an example of this. It informs Vyper which compiler version to use for the smart contract.
The second line of code shows that the “userName”, in fact, is a state variable. It stores the user’s name. The smart contract code also uses “@external”, which is used to specify a function as an extern function. This basically means that external calls can be made to the function.
The “_init_ function” is the constructor associated to smart contracts. This is the next highlight of the smart contract code. This function is required for smart contract deployment using Vyper programming language. Also, you should be aware of the @view component within smart contract code in the “getUserName” function.
Vyper is informed by the “@view” element that the function will not impact the blockchain state. The “@view”, which is only used to read state from the blockchain network, does not work. The “getUserName”, function that returns the state variable “userName” is another important feature of smart contract code.
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The smart contract code cannot perform by itself. In order to compile smart contracts on Vyper, you must follow a few steps. The easiest way to start the compilation is with the “vyper command.” This is the command to compile your Vyper smart contracts.
The terminal would output a hexadecimal string that represents smart contract bytecode.
You will now need to start the Vyper Server by running the command “vyper_server” in the terminal. The Vyper server would start up on the URL http://localhost:8000/, which you can use in Remix for remote compiling and deployment.
Remotely compile and implement smart contracts with Vyper programming language using the Remix IDE. In the Remix IDE, create a new file called “contract.vy” and copy the smart contract code. Next, you will need to install Vyper plugin within the Remix IDE. The same can be done by clicking the “Plugin Manager” icon on your sidebar. Next, search for ‘vyper’ and click on “Activate” next to the item that appears in the search results. Finally, click on the Vyper icon.
You must click on “Compile contract.vy” to complete the last step in compiling smart contracts on Vyper using Remix IDE.
Using the Smart Contract
Vyper’s interactive capabilities make it easier to script and compile smart contract code. Vyper also makes it easy to deploy smart contract code. Click on the Ethereum button on the Remix IDE sidebar to begin the process. To access the Ropsten Testnet, select the “ENVIRONMENT” dropdown menu.
Click on the “Deploy” option. Make sure you provide the name next to the “Deploy.” option. After clicking on the “Deploy”, you will be able to find the Metamask UI. Click “Confirm” to deploy the smart contract to Ropsten Testnet. After you have created the contract, you will be able to interact with it via the Remix browser by calling the appropriate methods. The Ropsten Ethereum Faucet allows users to view the contract only.
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Developers will find many advantages in the Vyper programming language process for creating secure smart contracts. The workflow is simple and easy to create a secure smartcontract using Vyper programming language. It includes a clearly-organized installation of Vyper and scripting smart contract code. Finally, testing and deployment of the code.
Vyper’s guidance on smart contracts structure is a vital aid in writing smart contract code. The Remix IDE makes it easy to compile, test, and deploy smart contracts. Find out more about Vyper, including its documentation. You can use Vyper to develop secure smart contracts now.